Applications of Spatial Light Modulators in Raman Spectroscopy


Advances in consumer display screen technologies have historically been adapted by researchers across the fields of optics as they can be used as electronically controlled spatial light modulators (SLMs) for a variety of uses. The performance characteristics of such SLM devices based on liquid crystal (LC) and digital micromirror device (DMD) technologies, in particular, has developed to the point where they are compatible with increasingly sensitive instrumental applications, for example, Raman spectroscopy. Spatial light modulators provide additional flexibility, from modulation of the laser excitation (including multiple laser foci patterns), manipulation of microscopic samples (optical trapping), or selection of sampling volume (adaptive optics or spatially offset Raman spectroscopy), to modulation in the spectral domain for high-resolution spectral filtering or multiplexed/compressive fast detection. Here, we introduce the benefits of different SLM devices as a part of Raman instrumentation and provide a variety of recent example applications which have benefited from their incorporation into a Raman system.

Cambridge Correlators manufacture a low-cost LC-SLM (∼ £1000) option with relatively lower specifications, which is still highly suitable for optical trapping.21


DLP® 0.95 1080p 2xLVDS UV Type-A DMD

Same as: DLPUVSN1FLN  

US ECCN: EAR99Add to cartInventory: 79   DATA SHEET  Download the data sheet for the DLP9500UV   |   View all additional information for the DLP9500UV

Quality information

Lead finish / Ball materialNI-PD-AU
MSL rating / Peak reflowN/A for Pkg Type
Quality, reliability
& packaging information 
View or download

More DLP9500UV information

Packaging information

Package | PinsPackage qty | Carrier:Operating temperature range (°C)
DLP-TYPEA.9 (FLN) | 3551 | OTHER

View TI packaging information

Features for the DLP9500UV

  • 0.95-Inch Diagonal Micromirror Array
    • 1920 × 1080 Array of Aluminum, Micrometer-Sized Mirrors (1080pResolution)
    • 10.8-µm Micromirror Pitch
    • ±12° Micromirror Tilt Angle (Relative to Flat State)
    • Designed for Corner Illumination
  • Designed for Use with UV Light
    (363 to 420 nm):
    • Window Transmission 98% (Single Pass, Through Two Window Surfaces) (Nominal)
    • Micromirror Reflectivity 88% (Nominal)
    • Array Diffraction Efficiency 85% (Nominal)
    • Array Fill Factor 92% (Nominal)
  • Four 16-Bit, Low-Voltage Differential Signaling (LVDS), Double Data Rate (DDR) Input Data Buses
  • Up to 400-MHz Input Data Clock Rate
  • 42.2-mm × 42.2-mm × 7-mm Package Footprint
  • Hermetic Package

All trademarks are the property of their respective owners.

Description for the DLP9500UV

DLP9500UV is a digitally controlled micro-electromechanical system(MEMS) spatial light modulator (SLM). When coupled to an appropriate optical system, the DLP9500UVcan be used to modulate the amplitude, direction, and/or phase of incoming light.

The DLP95000UV chipset is a new digital micromirror device (DMD)addition to the DLP®Discovery™ 4100 platform, which enables highresolution and high performance spatial light modulation beyond the visible spectrum into the UVAspectrum (363 nm to 420 nm). The DLP9500UV DMD is designed with a special window that is optimizedfor UV transmission.

The DLP9500UV is the 0.95 1080p DMD, with a hermetic package, that issold with a dedicated DLPC410 controller required for high speed pattern rates of >23000 Hz(1-bit binary) and >1700 Hz (8-bit gray), one unit DLPR410 (DLP Discovery 4100 ConfigurationPROM), and two units DLPA200 (DMD micromirror drivers). Refer to DLPC410, DLPA200, DLPR410, andDLP9500UV Functional Block Diagram.

Reliable function and operation of the DLP9500UV requiresthat it be used in conjunction with the other components of the chipset. A dedicated chipsetprovides developers easier access to the DMD as well as high speed, independent micromirrorcontrol.

DLP9500UV is a digitally controlledmicro-electromechanical system (MEMS) spatial light modulator (SLM). When coupled to an appropriateoptical system, the DLP9500UV can be used to modulate the amplitude,direction, and/or phase of incoming light.

Electrically, the DLP9500UV consists of a two-dimensional array of 1-bit CMOS memorycells, organized in a grid of 1920 memory cell columns by 1080 memory cell rows. The CMOS memoryarray is addressed on a row-by-row basis, over four 16-bit LVDS DDR buses. Addressing is handled bya serial control bus. The specific CMOS memory access protocol is handled by the DLPC410 digitalcontroller.

Comparison of nematic liquid-crystal and DMD based spatial light modulation in complex photonics


Digital micro-mirror devices (DMDs) have recently emerged as practical spatial light modulators (SLMs) for applications in photonics, primarily due to their modulation rates, which exceed by several orders of magnitude those of the already well-established nematic liquid crystal (LC)-based SLMs. This, however, comes at the expense of limited modulation depth and diffraction efficiency. Here we compare the beam-shaping fidelity of both technologies when applied to light control in complex environments, including an aberrated optical system, a highly scattering layer and a multimode optical fibre. We show that, despite their binary amplitude-only modulation, DMDs are capable of higher beam-shaping fidelity compared to LC-SLMs in all considered regimes.

λ/12 Super Resolution Achieved in Maskless Optical Projection Nanolithography for Efficient Cross-Scale Patterning

  • Yu-Huan Liu
  • Yuan-Yuan Zhao
  • Feng Jin
  • Xian-Zi Dong*
  • Mei-Ling Zheng*
  • Zhen-Sheng Zhao
  • Xuan-Ming Duan*


Abstract Image

The emerging demand for device miniaturization and integration prompts the patterning technique of micronano-cross-scale structures as an urgent desire. Lithography, as a sufficient patterning technique, has been playing an important role in achieving functional micronanoscale structures for decades. As a promising alternative, we have proposed and demonstrated the maskless optical projection nanolithography (MLOP-NL) technique for efficient cross-scale patterning. A minimum feature size of 32 nm, which is λ/12 super resolution breaking the optical diffraction limit, has been achieved by a single exposure. Furthermore, multiscale two-dimensional micronano-hybrid structures with the size over hundreds of micrometers and the precision at tens of nanometers have been fabricated by simply controlling the exposure conditions. The proposed MLOP-NL technique provides a powerful tool for achieving cross-scale patterning with both large-scale and precise configuration with high efficiency, which can be potentially used in the fabrication of multiscale integrated microsystems.

Cite this: Nano Lett. 2021, 21, 9, 3915–3921Publication Date:May 3, 2021

How the Supply Chain Affects the U.S. Economy

How Firms Used Supply Chain Financing to Survive the Financial Crisis


Kimberly Amadeo

 REVIEWED BY ERIC ESTEVEZ Updated May 24, 2021

The supply chain is how a company turns raw materials into finished goods and services for the customer. It starts with the harvesting of the raw material. The commodity could be crops, animals, timber, gold, or other natural resources.

The commodity then goes to the manufacturer. That’s when it becomes a finished product. There can be several steps in this process and they can involve locations in several different countries.

The finished product goes to one of three places: a wholesaler, a retailer, or directly to the consumer.

  1. The wholesaler or distributor consolidates the products from around the world. It repackages them for easier marketing and distribution.  
  2. The retailer offers goods and services to the consumer. Retailers provide additional services, such as helping you make a selection. For this service, they charge extra.
  3. Some manufacturers bypass the retailer and offer the products directly to the consumer. Some sell from their own website or catalog. Others use a discount warehouse store. A few can afford their own store that only sells their goods.

How It Affects the Economy

Manufacturing managers decide where to locate the company based on the costs of production. That’s led to a lot of jobs outsourcing in technology to India and China. Many call centers have outsourced to India and the Philippines.

Natural disasters are becoming an increasing threat that can disrupt any part of the supply chain. The United Nations Refugee Agency reported their frequency has doubled in the last 20 years due to global warming. The impact on local productivity can last decades after an event.1

If a disaster is bad enough, it can slow global growth. In 2011, Japan’s earthquake and the resultant tsunami created the most damage to the world’s supply of automobiles, electronics, and semiconductor equipment. The wings, landing gears, and other major airline parts are also made in Japan, so the quake disrupted the production of Boeing’s 787 Dreamliner. U.S. gross domestic product slowed in 2011 as 22 Japanese auto part plants suspended production.2

Supply Chain Management

Businesses manage every step of the supply chain to make sure it is the most efficient. As a result, many companies outsource jobs to countries like China that have a lower cost of living.3 East and Southeast Asia accounted for nearly two-thirds of exports from developing countries.4

Many companies vertically integrate to get control of the supply chain. This gives them more control over the production process and costs, which gives the company enough competitive advantage that it is almost a monopoly. But vertical integration is a disadvantage when it restricts flexibility.

How Supply Chain Financing Help Firms Survive

The global credit crisis forced banks and corporations to find innovative ways to raise cash to keep businesses running. Many turned to supply chain financing, which is like a pay-day loan for businesses. Suppliers use the invoice for a shipment as collateral to get a low-interest loan from a bank. Banks know that they will get paid due to the credit-worthiness of the business receiving the goods.

Supply chain financing is especially helpful for small companies. It provides an opportunity to earn better financing terms. Banks were reluctant to lend, even to each other. But they were happy to lend against approved purchase orders and invoices with companies with a good shipping record.

Corporations became more efficient in their operations, which also helped to free up cash. In addition, corporation Treasurers became more focused on making sure the cash they had was invested in “safe havens,” such as U.S. Treasuries, municipal bonds, and even their own stocks in “stock buybacks.” They became savvier about foreign exchange and interest rate risk. In other words, good companies squeezed cash out of their operations and cash management, since they couldn’t rely on banks. 

The Bottom Line

Efficient management of the supply chain can reduce costs, maximize customer value, and maximize competitive advantage. It entails effective coordination and control of linked sectors, departments, systems, and organizations. All facilitate the flow of production from conceptualization to point of sale of the product to the consumer.

Corporations that are adept at supply chain management can be more liquid, flexible, and less reliant on banks and middlemen for their cash flows and profits.  

Nanoparticle-based metasurfaces for angular independent spectral filtering applications

We designed a metasurface made of a monolayer of spherical nanoparticles embedded in a dielectric slab, which exhibits transmission properties independent of the incidence angle. Adjusting the electromagnetic coupling between high-index dielectric and hybrid core-shell nanoparticles enables the metasurface to operate in low-pass, bandpass, as well as band-stop regimes in the visible and near-infrared spectral ranges. We demonstrate how symmetric properties of spherical nanoparticles determine the response of the metasurface, resulting in a spectral filter with a wide angular acceptance range. We study transmission characteristics of the metasurface, such as frequency selectivity, the slope of filtering at cutoff frequencies, and the robustness of the metasurface against experimental variations in geometrical parameters. Our analyses show that the proposed approach can be used to design angular-independent spectral filters with the same material platform and approach to operate in different regimes and spectral ranges.

Synology: multiple DDNS entries

So SSH into your Synology box:

ssh root@
Obviously you may have a different user IP address and if you have specified a different port you will need to add it in:

ssh -p 45 user@
Once logged in you can simply copy the file to a folder that you can access:

cp /etc.defaults/ddns_providers.conf /yourfolder
Then you can open the file in your favourite editor

copy the provider you want multiple entries for and just rename them _1 _2 etc…

Save the file and then copy it back to the original location

cp /yourfolder/ddns_providers.conf /etc.defaults
And you should now have the ability to choose more than 1 instance of the same provider.

BEWARE: sometimes DSM updates reset this file to its orginal state so you might need to re-copy your file after an update.

Super-Resolution Imaging by Dielectric Superlenses: TiO2 Metamaterial Superlens versus BaTiO3 Superlens

Photonics | Free Full-Text | Super-Resolution Imaging by Dielectric Superlenses: TiO2 Metamaterial Superlens versus BaTiO3 Superlens | HTML (

Abstract: All-dielectric superlens made from micro and nano particles has emerged as a simple yet effective solution to label-free, super-resolution imaging. High-index BaTiO3 Glass (BTG) microspheres are among the most widely used dielectric superlenses today but could potentially be replaced by a new class of TiO2 metamaterial (meta-TiO2 ) superlens made of TiO2 nanoparticles. In this work, we designed and fabricated TiO2 metamaterial superlens in full-sphere shape for the first time, which resembles BTG microsphere in terms of the physical shape, size, and effective refractive index. Super-resolution imaging performances were compared using the same sample, lighting, and imaging settings. The results show that TiO2 meta-superlens performs consistently better over BTG superlens in terms of imaging contrast, clarity, field of view, and resolution, which was further supported by theoretical simulation. This opens new possibilities in developing more powerful, robust, and reliable super-resolution lens and imaging systems.